Taowhywee, Agnes Baker Pilgrim
Takelma Indian Elder, Confederated Tribes of Siletz
Supporting the Salmon Ceremony and the International Council of 13 Indigenous Grandmothers


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The Removal of First Peoples to the reservations at Siletz and Grand Ronde began with the ending of the Rogue River Indian Wars in 1856, with 5 separate forced migrations only 18 years after the Removal of the Cherokees from Georgia to Oklahoma:

Five Trails of Tears

1. January, 1856 - removal of 480 Cow Creek, Umpqua, Mollala, and Calapuya people over land to the Grand Ronde Reservation on the Yamhill. [Beckham, 166]

2. February, 23, 1856 - forced march of Toquahear and 400 people from Fort Lane, the Table Rock Reservation near Medford, to Grande Ronde. [Schwartz, 113; Beckham, 166]

3. June 21, 1856 - At Fort Orford, 600 or more people were put aboard the steamer Columbia to Portland, and then marched to Grand Ronde and Siletz [Beckham, 189; Schwartz, 146]

4. July, 1856 - another voyage of the Columbia took more lower Rogue River people and the bands of Cholcultah and Lympe (the great-uncle of Agnes Baker Pilgrim). [Schwartz, 147]

5. July 9, 1856 - Tecumtum's band, along with others, including Aggie's great-grandparents, grandfather and great-aunts, and people from the Pistol and Chetco Rivers, were marched north along the coast. [Schwartz, 147]

The tribes involved in these removals from southwest Oregon were the Tututni (including all the lower Rogue River Bands and those extending up the coast to Floras Creek and down to Whales Head), Chetco (including all of the villages from Whales Head to the Winchuck River), Tolowa, Takelma (including the Illinois Valley/mid-Rogue River and Cow Creek peoples), Galice, Applegate (Dakubetede), and Shasta.

In May of 1857, 2/3 of all the Rogue River and Cow Creek Tribes, and all of the Shastas were removed from their temporary camp at Grand Ronde to the Upper Farm and Shasta Farm at Siletz Agency.

Other tribes from Western Oregon who were removed to Siletz and Grand Ronde in 1856, or later, include the Clatsop, Chinook, Klickitat, Molala, Kalapuya, Tillamook, Alsea, Siuslaw/Lower Umpqua, Coos, Coquelle, and Upper Umpqua.